Englische Premierminister


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Englische Premierminister

Der Premierminister des Vereinigten Königreichs ist der ranghöchste Minister der Regierung Januar ; abgerufen am August (englisch). Britischer Premierminister Chronik der Ära Tony Blair. Seite 2 von 3: April Blair besucht US-Präsident George W. Bush auf dessen Ranch in Texas und. Boris Johnson, britischer Premierminister seit Juli Die Liste der britischen Premierminister enthält alle Personen, die seit dieses Amt bekleideten.

Englische Premierminister Erläuterungen

William Henry Cavendish-Bentinck, 3. Duke of Portland. Spencer Perceval. Robert Jenkinson, 2. Earl of Liverpool. George Canning. Einträge in der Kategorie „Britischer Premierminister“. Folgende 57 Einträge sind in dieser Kategorie, von 57 insgesamt.! Liste der britischen Premierminister. Der Premierminister des Vereinigten Königreichs ist der ranghöchste Minister der Regierung Januar ; abgerufen am August (englisch). Boris Johnson, britischer Premierminister seit Juli Die Liste der britischen Premierminister enthält alle Personen, die seit dieses Amt bekleideten.

Englische Premierminister

Boris Johnson, britischer Premierminister seit Juli Die Liste der britischen Premierminister enthält alle Personen, die seit dieses Amt bekleideten. Einträge in der Kategorie „Britischer Premierminister“. Folgende 57 Einträge sind in dieser Kategorie, von 57 insgesamt.! Liste der britischen Premierminister. Britischer Premierminister Chronik der Ära Tony Blair. Seite 2 von 3: April Blair besucht US-Präsident George W. Bush auf dessen Ranch in Texas und. Englische Premierminister

Unter Robert Walpole — gewann der Erste Lord erstmals einen führenden Einfluss auf die Regierungspolitik und legte damit die Grundlage für das Amt des Premierministers.

Für den führenden Minister kam gegen Ende des Jahrhunderts die Bezeichnung Premierminister in Gebrauch, war aber zunächst nur eine inoffizielle Bezeichnung für den ranghöchsten Minister, der offiziell andere Ämter ausübte, meistens jedoch nicht immer das des Ersten Lords des Schatzamtes.

Bis zu Robert Peels erfolglosem Versuch, ohne Parlamentsmehrheit zu regieren, machte der Monarch nicht bekannt, wen er als seinen Premierminister betrachtete.

In der Theorie ist der Premierminister des Vereinigten Königreichs ein primus inter pares , ein Erster unter Gleichen im britischen Kabinett.

Bei der Auswahl der Minister bindet der Premierminister üblicherweise Parlamentsmitglieder ein, die über eine eigene politische Basis, eine Hausmacht, verfügen, und die ihm potenziell gefährlich werden könnten.

Andererseits hat der Premierminister sehr wenig Möglichkeiten, auf die Zusammensetzung der britischen Zivilverwaltung Einfluss zu nehmen, so dass ein Spannungsverhältnis zwischen den gewählten Politikern und der Beamtenschaft spürbar ist.

Sir Robert Walpole zum persönlichen Geschenk gemacht. Walpole nahm das Geschenk nicht an, akzeptierte das Haus jedoch in seiner Eigenschaft als Erster Lord des Schatzamtes, und bezog die Residenz Die meisten der ihm folgenden Amtsinhaber wohnten hier, obwohl es einige Premierminister des Jahrhunderts vorzogen, in ihrem eigenen Haus zu leben.

Einige waren nicht Erster Lord des Schatzamtes und somit auch nicht berechtigt, in Downing Street zu wohnen. Ein Abriss wurde erwogen, da das Gebäude jedoch ähnlich ikonischen Status wie Windsor Castle oder der Buckingham Palace erreicht hatte, wurde eine umfangreiche Renovierung beschlossen.

Behind the black door. Learn about past events and take a tour. Past Prime Ministers. Learn about the lives they lived and the legacies they left behind.

Number 10 media blog. About us Our energy use. Is this page useful? Maybe Yes this page is useful No this page is not useful. Thank you for your feedback.

There is something wrong with this page. What were you doing? Rashford kündigte daraufhin an, weiter intensiv für die gute Sache zu kämpfen.

Einer, der sogar Boris Johnson zum Kurswechsel bewegen kann. Twitter-Kanal von Marcus Rashford. Teilen Weiterleiten Tweeten Weiterleiten Drucken.

Borussia von A bis Z.

Britische Konservative. Dennoch: Gordon Brown hängt wie ein angezählter Boxer in den Seilen. Mai Blair erklärt seinen Rücktritt als britischer Premierminister zum Wieder ist ein Putsch gegen Schon Penn britischen Premier gescheitert. Doch ihn Pinnacle Sports Australia wäre falsch. Premier Dombrovskis will sparen.

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Boris Johnson wird neuer Tory-Chef und neuer britischer Premierminister.

Englische Premierminister Warum sehe ich MORGENPOST.DE nicht?

In der Theorie ist der Premierminister des Vereinigten Königreichs ein primus inter paresein Erster unter Gleichen im britischen Kabinett. Doch ihn abzuschreiben wäre falsch. Premierminister des Vereinigten Königreichs. Wieder ist Star Games+ Putsch gegen den britischen Premier gescheitert. Seite 1 2 3 Alles auf einer Seite anzeigen. Er gilt als möglicher Nachfolger und bildet daher ein Schattenkabinett. Das prädestiniert ihn für eine Koalition mit den Liberaldemokraten. Er ist schwach - aber seine Partei ist schwächer. Eine Galerie Putins schönster Macho-Inszenierungen. Benachrichtigungen erfolgreich aktiviert Wir halten Sie ab sofort über die wichtigsten Nachrichten des Handelsblatts auf dem Laufenden. Hierbei sind allerdings die Bezüge als Abgeordneter des House of Commons mit einbezogen. Benachrichtigung aktivieren Dürfen wir Sie in Ihrem Browser über die wichtigsten Nachrichten des Handelsblatts informieren? Britische Konservative. Das prädestiniert ihn für eine Koalition mit den Liberaldemokraten. Einige waren nicht Erster Lord des Schatzamtes Casino 888 Furs Handy somit auch nicht berechtigt, in Downing Street zu Amerikanische Sportarten Liste. Unter Robert Walpole — gewann der Erste Lord erstmals einen führenden Einfluss auf die Regierungspolitik und legte damit die Grundlage für das Amt des Premierministers. Archived from the original on 12 April He also received Cherry Casino No Deposit Bonus support of the House of Lords, which passed supportive motions, and many messages of support from the country at large, in the form of petitions approving of his appointment which influenced some Members to switch their support to Pitt. If you are emailing about an issue relating to the responsibilities of another Government Department or public authority then you should contact them directly. Chamberlain Snowden W. The Daily Telegraph. Thompson is incorrect, stating there is much evidence of a "popular conservative Blackjack Spielen Gratis that Po Spiele in defence of King and Country. Englische Premierminister Englische Premierminister Premierminister des Vereinigten Königreichs. Frisch, modern, konservativ im Kern: Der neue britische Premier Cameron. Walpole nahm Mansion88 Geschenk nicht an, akzeptierte das Haus jedoch in seiner Eigenschaft als Erster Lord des Schatzamtes, und bezog die Residenz Für Sie Spiele Die beiden Häuser sind jedoch miteinander verbunden. Sie erhalten Meldungen pro Tag. Winston Churchill war von 19Premierminister und führte Großbritannien durch den Zweiten Weltkrieg. Seit haben 12 Männer und zwei Frauen. Nr. Name, Amtszeit. 1, Lord North, – 2, Marquis of Rockingham, ​. 3, Earl of Shelburne, – 4, Duke of Portland, 5, William Pitt. Britischer Premierminister Chronik der Ära Tony Blair. Seite 2 von 3: April Blair besucht US-Präsident George W. Bush auf dessen Ranch in Texas und. Britischer Premierminister Chronik der Ära Tony Blair. Seite 3 von 3: Januar Das britische Kabinett beschließt die Aufstockung des britischen. Der britische Premierminister Boris Johnson ist wegen seiner Covid​Erkrankung ins Krankenhaus gebracht worden. Das teilte der.

Englische Premierminister Navigationsmenü Video

GROSSBRITANNIEN: Brexit-Hardliner Boris Johnson neuer Premierminister

So war es auch dieses Mal. Wahrscheinlich hat sich der Stürmer über Johnsons Nachricht noch mehr gefreut als über den Auswärtssieg.

Und auch das ist Rashford: Nach seinem Erfolg war er darum bemüht, dass auch der Konservative Johnson sein Gesicht wahren kann.

Anders als viele seiner Premier-League-Kollegen, die bei Twitter, Instagram und Snapchat witzige Videos veröffentlichen, mit schnellen Autos protzen und durch ihr PR-Team belanglose Motivationssprüche posten lassen, steht Rashford ungern selbst im Mittelpunkt.

Wenn Marcus Rashford spricht, dann stets überlegt und oft ernst. Seine Familie war auf Essensgutscheine angewiesen.

Rashford kündigte daraufhin an, weiter intensiv für die gute Sache zu kämpfen. Einer, der sogar Boris Johnson zum Kurswechsel bewegen kann. Many Whigs who had formed a part of the Rockingham ministry, including Fox, now refused to serve under Lord Shelburne, the new prime minister.

Pitt, however, was comfortable with Shelburne, and thus joined his government; he was appointed Chancellor of the Exchequer.

Fox, who became Pitt's lifelong political rival, then joined a coalition with Lord North, with whom he collaborated to bring about the defeat of the Shelburne administration.

But Pitt wisely declined, for he knew he would be incapable of securing the support of the House of Commons. Pitt, who had been stripped of his post as Chancellor of the Exchequer, joined the Opposition.

He raised the issue of parliamentary reform in order to strain the uneasy Fox-North coalition, which included both supporters and detractors of reform.

He did not advocate an expansion of the electoral franchise, but he did seek to address bribery and rotten boroughs.

Though his proposal failed, many reformers in Parliament came to regard him as their leader, instead of Charles James Fox. Losing the war and the Thirteen Colonies was a shock to the British system.

The war revealed the limitations of Britain's fiscal-military state when it had powerful enemies and no allies, depended on extended and vulnerable transatlantic lines of communication, and was faced for the first time since the 17th century by both Protestant and Catholic foes.

The defeat heightened dissension and escalated political antagonism to the King's ministers. Inside parliament, the primary concern changed from fears of an over-mighty monarch to the issues of representation, parliamentary reform, and government retrenchment.

Reformers sought to destroy what they saw as widespread institutional corruption. The result was a crisis from to The peace in left France financially prostrate, while the British economy boomed due to the return of American business.

That crisis ended in as a result of the King's shrewdness in outwitting Fox and renewed confidence in the system engendered by the leadership of Pitt.

Historians conclude that the loss of the American colonies enabled Britain to deal with the French Revolution with more unity and organisation than would otherwise have been the case.

The Fox-North Coalition fell in December , after Fox had introduced Edmund Burke 's bill to reform the East India Company to gain the patronage he so greatly lacked while the King refused to support him.

Fox stated the bill was necessary to save the company from bankruptcy. Pitt responded that: "Necessity is the plea for every infringement of human freedom.

It is the argument of tyrants; it is the creed of slaves. Following the bill's failure in the Upper House, George III dismissed the coalition government and finally entrusted the premiership to William Pitt, after having offered the position to him three times previously.

A constitutional crisis arose when the King dismissed the Fox-North coalition government and named Pitt to replace it. Though faced with a hostile majority in Parliament, Pitt was able to solidify his position within a few months.

Some historians argue that his success was inevitable given the decisive importance of monarchical power; others argue that the King gambled on Pitt and that both would have failed but for a run of good fortune.

Pitt, at the age of 24, became Great Britain's youngest Prime Minister ever. The contemporary satire The Rolliad ridiculed him for his youth: [26].

Many saw Pitt as a stop-gap appointment until some more senior statesman took on the role. However, although it was widely predicted that the new "mince-pie administration" would not outlast the Christmas season, [27] it survived for seventeen years.

So as to reduce the power of the Opposition , Pitt offered Charles James Fox and his allies posts in the Cabinet; Pitt's refusal to include Lord North, however, thwarted his efforts.

The new government was immediately on the defensive and in January was defeated on a motion of no confidence. Pitt, however, took the unprecedented step of refusing to resign, despite this defeat.

He retained the support of the King, who would not entrust the reins of power to the Fox—North Coalition.

He also received the support of the House of Lords, which passed supportive motions, and many messages of support from the country at large, in the form of petitions approving of his appointment which influenced some Members to switch their support to Pitt.

At the same time, he was granted the Freedom of the City of London. When he returned from the ceremony to mark this, men of the City pulled Pitt's coach home themselves, as a sign of respect.

When passing a Whig club, the coach came under attack from a group of men who tried to assault Pitt. When news of this spread, it was assumed Fox and his associates had tried to bring down Pitt by any means.

Pitt gained great popularity with the public at large as "Honest Billy" who was seen as a refreshing change from the dishonesty, corruption and lack of principles widely associated with both Fox and North.

Despite a series of defeats in the House of Commons, Pitt defiantly remained in office, watching the Coalition's majority shrink as some Members of Parliament left the Opposition to abstain.

In March , Parliament was dissolved, and a general election ensued. Patronage and bribes paid by the Treasury were normally expected to be enough to secure the government a comfortable majority in the House of Commons, but on this occasion, the government reaped much popular support as well.

Early returns showed a massive swing to Pitt with the result that many Opposition Members who still had not faced election either defected, stood down, or made deals with their opponents to avoid expensive defeats.

A notable exception came in Fox's own constituency of Westminster , which contained one of the largest electorates in the country.

In a contest estimated to have cost a quarter of the total spending in the entire country, Fox bitterly fought against two Pittite candidates to secure one of the two seats for the constituency.

Great legal wranglings ensued, including the examination of every single vote cast, which dragged on for more than a year.

Meanwhile, Fox sat for the pocket borough of Tain Burghs. Many saw the dragging out of the result as being unduly vindictive on the part of Pitt and eventually the examinations were abandoned with Fox declared elected.

Elsewhere, Pitt won a personal triumph when he was elected a Member for the University of Cambridge , a constituency he had long coveted and which he would continue to represent for the remainder of his life.

His administration secure, Pitt could begin to enact his agenda. His first major piece of legislation as Prime Minister was the India Act , which re-organised the British East India Company and kept a watch over corruption.

It differed from Fox's failed India Bill and specified that the Board would be appointed by the King. Further augmentations and clarifications of the Governor-General's authority were made in , presumably by Lord Sydney, and presumably as a result of the Company's setting up of Penang with their own Superintendent Governor , Captain Francis Light , in In domestic politics, Pitt concerned himself with the cause of parliamentary reform.

In , he introduced a bill to remove the representation of thirty-six rotten boroughs, and to extend, in a small way, the electoral franchise to more individuals.

Convicts were originally transported to the Thirteen Colonies in North America, but after the American War of Independence ended in , the newly formed United States refused to accept further convicts.

The First Fleet of 11 vessels carried over a thousand settlers, including convicts. Pitt sought to reduce the national debt by imposing new taxes.

Pitt always paid careful attention to financial issues. A fifth of Britain's imports were smuggled in without paying taxes. He made it easier for honest merchants to import goods by lowering tariffs on easily smuggled items such as tea, wine, spirits and tobacco.

In , Pitt was forced to protect the kingdom's gold reserves by preventing individuals from exchanging banknotes for gold.

Great Britain would continue to use paper money for over two decades. Pitt was also forced to introduce Great Britain's first-ever income tax.

The new tax helped offset losses in indirect tax revenue, which had been caused by a decline in trade.

Pitt sought European alliances to restrict French influence, forming the Triple Alliance with Prussia and Holland in The Alliance, however, failed to produce any other important benefits for Great Britain.

Pitt was alarmed at Russian expansion in the s at the expense of the Ottoman Empire. In peace talks with the Ottomans, Russia refused to return the key Ochakov fortress.

Pitt wanted to threaten military retaliation. However Russia's ambassador Semyon Vorontsov organised Pitt's enemies and launched a public opinion campaign.

Pitt had become alarmed at the opposition to his Russian policy in parliament, Burke and Fox both uttering powerful speeches against the restoration of Ochakov to the Turks.

Pitt won the vote so narrowly that he gave up. In , Pitt faced a major crisis when the King fell victim to a mysterious illness, [46] a form of mental disorder that incapacitated him.

If the sovereign was incapable of fulfilling his constitutional duties, Parliament would need to appoint a regent to rule in his place.

All factions agreed that the only viable candidate was the King's eldest son, Prince George, Prince of Wales. The Prince, however, was a supporter of Charles James Fox.

Had the Prince come to power, he would almost surely have dismissed Pitt. He did not have such an opportunity, however, as Parliament spent months debating legal technicalities relating to the regency.

Fortunately for Pitt, the King recovered in February , just after a Regency Bill had been introduced and passed in the House of Commons.

The general elections of resulted in a majority for the government, and Pitt continued as Prime Minister. In , he proceeded to address one of the problems facing the growing British Empire : the future of British Canada.

By the Constitutional Act of , the province of Quebec was divided into two separate provinces: the predominantly French Lower Canada and the predominantly English Upper Canada.

An early favourable response to the French Revolution encouraged many in Great Britain to reopen the issue of parliamentary reform, which had been dormant since Pitt's reform bill was defeated in The reformers, however, were quickly labelled as radicals and associates of the French revolutionaries.

Subsequently, in , Pitt's administration tried three of them for treason but lost. Parliament began to enact repressive legislation in order to silence the reformers.

Individuals who published seditious material were punished, and, in , the writ of habeas corpus was suspended.

Other repressive measures included the Seditious Meetings Act , which restricted the right of individuals to assemble publicly, and the Combination Acts , which restricted the formation of societies or organisations that favoured political reforms.

Problems manning the Royal Navy also led to Pitt to introduce the Quota System in in addition to the existing system of impressment. The war with France was extremely expensive, straining Great Britain's finances.

Unlike in the latter stages of the Napoleonic Wars , at this point Britain had only a very small standing army, and thus contributed to the war effort mainly through sea power and by supplying funds to other coalition members facing France.

Throughout the s, the war against France was presented as an ideological struggle between French republicanism vs. British monarchism with the British government seeking to mobilise public opinion in support of the war.

Thompson is incorrect, stating there is much evidence of a "popular conservative movement" that rallied in defence of King and Country. In Jane Austen 's novel Northanger Abbey , which was written in the s, but not published until , one of the characters' remarks that it is not possible for a family to keep secrets in these modern times when spies for the government were lurking everywhere.

This comment captures well the tense, paranoid atmosphere of the s, when people were being encouraged to report "radicals" to the authorities.

In , Pitt decided to take advantage of the Haitian Revolution to seize St. Domingue , the richest French colony in the world, believing this was would strike a great blow at France while bringing St.

Domingue into the British Empire and ensuring that the slaves in the British West Indies would not be inspired to revolt likewise.

Domingue, lest their own slaves be inspired to seek freedom. Domingue on 20 September , stating they had come to protect the white population from the blacks, and were able to seize some coastal enclaves.

Domingue inspired ferocious resistance from the Haitians, who had no desire to be forced into chains again.

The heavy death toll caused by yellow fever , the much dreaded "black vomit", made conquering St. Domingue impossible, but an undeterred Pitt launched what he called the "great push" in , sending out the largest British expedition yet mounted to conquer St.

In November , the "great push" began with ships leaving Portsmouth for St. Domingue, no matter what the cost in lives and money, to improve Britain's negotiating hand when it came time to make peace with the French republic.

Domingue, than he ever did to Europe in the years —98, it is proper to view the West Indies as Britain's main theatre of war and Europe as more of a sideshow.

As the British death toll caused by yellow fever continued to climb, Pitt was criticised in the House of Commons.

Several MPs suggested it might be better to abandon the expedition, but Pitt insisted that Britain had given its word of honour that it would protect the French planters from their former slaves, and the expedition to St.

Domingue could not be abandoned. Domingue in — ended in disaster. Domingue to the British empire had killed off most of the British army, cost the British treasury a fortune and weakened British influence in Europe, making British power "fettered, numbered and paralyzed", all for nothing.

Throughout the s, the popularity of the Society of United Irishmen grew. Influenced by the American and French revolutions, this movement demanded independence and republicanism for Ireland.

In April , the mutiny of the entire Spithead fleet shook the government sailors demanded a pay increase to match inflation. This mutiny occurred at the same moment that the Franco-Dutch alliance were preparing an invasion of Britain.

To regain control of the fleet, Pitt agreed to navy pay increases and had George III pardon the mutineers. Pitt refused to negotiate with Parker, whom he wanted to see hanged as a mutineer.

In he passed the Defence of the Realm act, which further restricted civil liberties. In May , the long-simmering unrest in Ireland exploded into outright rebellion with the United Irishmen Society launching a revolt to win independence for Ireland.

Thinking a less sectarian and more conciliatory approach would have avoided the uprising, Pitt sought an Act of Union that would make Ireland an official part of the United Kingdom and end the " Irish Question ".

Despite Pitt's efforts, the French continued to defeat the First Coalition , which collapsed in The king was strongly opposed to Catholic Emancipation ; he argued that to grant additional liberty would violate his coronation oath , in which he had promised to protect the established Church of England.

Pitt, unable to change the king's strong views, resigned on 16 February , [73] so as to allow Henry Addington , his political friend, to form a new administration.

At about the same time, however, the king suffered a renewed bout of madness, with the consequence that Addington could not receive his formal appointment.

Though he had resigned, Pitt temporarily continued to discharge his duties; on 18 February , he brought forward the annual budget. Power was transferred from Pitt to Addington on 14 March, when the king recovered.

Pitt supported the new administration, but with little enthusiasm; he frequently absented himself from Parliament, preferring to remain in his Lord Warden 's residence of Walmer Castle —before usually spending an annual late-summer holiday there, and later often present from the spring until the autumn.

From the castle, he helped organise a local Volunteer Corps in anticipation of a French invasion, acted as colonel of a battalion raised by Trinity House —he was also a Master of Trinity House—and encouraged the construction of Martello towers and the Royal Military Canal in Romney Marsh.

He rented land abutting the Castle to farm on which to lay out trees and walks. His niece Lady Hester Stanhope designed and managed the gardens and acted as his hostess.

Everyone expected it to be only a short truce. By , war had broken out again with France under Emperor Napoleon. Although Addington had previously invited him to join the Cabinet, Pitt preferred to join the Opposition, becoming increasingly critical of the government's policies.

Addington, unable to face the combined opposition of Pitt and Fox, saw his majority gradually evaporate and resigned in late April Pitt returned to the premiership on 10 May He had originally planned to form a broad coalition government, but faced the opposition of George III to the inclusion of Fox.

Moreover, many of Pitt's former supporters, including the allies of Addington, joined the Opposition.

Thus, Pitt's second ministry was considerably weaker than his first. In October , the British Admiral Horatio Nelson, 1st Viscount Nelson , won a crushing victory in the Battle of Trafalgar , ensuring British naval supremacy for the remainder of the war.

At the annual Lord Mayor 's Banquet toasting him as "the Saviour of Europe", Pitt responded in a few words that became the most famous speech of his life:.

Nevertheless, the Coalition collapsed, having suffered significant defeats at the Battle of Ulm October and the Battle of Austerlitz December After hearing the news of Austerlitz Pitt referred to a map of Europe, "Roll up that map; it will not be wanted these ten years.

Pitt was an expert in finance and served as Chancellor of the Exchequer. He was able to mobilize the nation's industrial and financial resources and apply them to defeating France.

With a population of 16 million, Britain was barely half the size of France, which had a population of 30 million. In terms of soldiers, however, the French numerical advantage was offset by British subsidies that paid for a large proportion of the Austrian and Russian soldiers, peaking at about , in The British national output remained strong, and the well-organized business sector channelled products into what the military needed.

France, meanwhile, saw its navy shrink by more than half. It was willingly supported by hundreds of thousands of investors and tax payers, despite the higher taxes on land and a new income tax.

The French financial system was inadequate and Napoleon's forces had to rely in part on requisitions from conquered lands.

The setbacks took a toll on Pitt's health. He had long suffered from poor health, beginning in childhood, and was plagued with gout and " biliousness ", which was worsened by a fondness for port that began when he was advised to consume it to deal with his chronic ill-health.

Pitt's body was buried in Westminster Abbey on 22 February, having lain in state for two days in the Palace of Westminster.

Pitt became known as a "three-bottle man" in reference to his heavy consumption of port wine. At one point rumours emerged of an intended marriage to Eleanor Eden , to whom Pitt had grown close.

Pitt broke off the potential marriage in , writing to her father, Lord Auckland , "I am compelled to say that I find the obstacles to it decisive and insurmountable".

Of his social relationships, biographer William Hague writes:. Pitt was happiest among his Cambridge companions or family.

He had no social ambitions, and it was rare for him to set out to make a friend. The talented collaborators of his first 18 months in office—Beresford, Wyvil and Twining—passed in and out of his mind along with their areas of expertise.

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